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Cats Against Dogs And Cats Win! The classical language also forms an important part of Tamil-medium education: verses from the Tirukkural, a classical work, are, for example, taught in primary school. The ordinary form of the modern language used in speech and writing, in contrast, has undergone significant changes, to the extent that a person who has not learnt the higher literary form will have difficulty understanding it.
The final letter of the name, usually transcribed as the lowercase l or zh, is a retroflex r. In phonetic transcriptions, it is usually represented by the retroflex approximant.
History A set of palm leaf manuscripts from the 15th century or the 16th century, containing Christian prayers in Tamil The origins of Tamil, like the other Dravidian languages are unknown, but unlike most of the other established literary languages of India, are independent of Sanskrit.
Tamil has the oldest literature amongst the Dravidian languages Hart, , but dating the language and the literature precisely is difficult. Literary works in India or Sri Lanka were preserved either in palm leaf manuscripts implying repeated copying and recopying or through oral transmission, making direct dating impossible.
External chronological records and internal linguistic evidence, however, indicate that the oldest extant works were probably composed sometime in the 2nd century CE. Apart from these, the earliest examples of Tamil writing we have today are rock inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE, which are written in Tamil-Brahmi, an adapted form of the Brahmi script Mahadevan, During the medieval period, a number of Sanskrit loan words were absorbed by Tamil, which many 20th century purists, notably Parithimaar Kalaignar and Maraimalai Adigal, later sought to remove.
This movement was called thanith thamizh iyakkam meaning pure Tamil movement. As a result of this, Tamil in formal documents, public speeches and scientific discourses is largely free of Sanskrit loan words. This group is a subgroup of the Tamil-Malayalam languages, which falls under a subgroup of the Tamil-Kodagu languages, which in turn is a subgroup of the Tamil-Kannada languages.
The Tamil-Kannada languages belong to the southern branch of the Dravidian language family. Tamil is most closely related to Malayalam, spoken in the Indian state of Kerala which borders Tamil Nadu, which linguists estimate separated from Tamil between the 8th and 10th centuries. Geographic distribution Tamil is the first language of the majority in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and in northern, eastern and northeastern Sri Lanka.
The language is also spoken by small groups of minorities in other parts of these two countries, most notably in the Indian states of Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra, and in Colombo and the hill country in Sri Lanka.
There are currently sizeable Tamil-speaking populations descended from them in Singapore , Malaysia , South Africa, and Mauritius. Many people in Guyana , Fiji , Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago have Tamil origins, but the language is spoken only by a small number there.
Tamil carries an international status as official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore , and has constitutional recognition in South Africa , Mauritius and Malaysia.
In addition, with the creation in of a legal status for classical languages by the government of India, Tamil became the first legally recognised classical language following a campaign by several Tamil associations supported by academics from India and abroad, most notably Professor George L.
The recognition was announced by the President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of both houses of the Indian Parliament on June 6, Spoken and literary variants The opening of the book of Genesis in an 18th century Tamil bible.
The language is centamil. In addition to its various dialects, Tamil also exhibits a rather sharp diglossia between its formal or classic variety, called centamil, and its colloquial form, called koduntamil, a broad term which traditionally referred to all spoken Tamil dialects rather than any one standard form. Diglossia has existed in the language since ancient times - the language used in early temple inscriptions differs quite significantly from the language of classical poetry.
In consequence, standard centamil is not based on the speech of any one region, a fact which has helped keep the written language mostly the same across various Tamil speaking regions. In modern times, centamil is generally used in formal writing and speech.
It is, for example, the language of textbooks, of much of Tamil literature and of public speaking and debate. In recent times, however, koduntamil has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of centamil. Most contemporary cinema , theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koduntamil, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience.
Spoken dialects did not have much prestige: Tamils believed that the grammatical rules of literary centamil had been formulated by the gods and they were therefore seen as being the only correct speech see, for example, Kankeyar, In contrast to most European languages, therefore, Tamil did not have a standard spoken form for much of its history.
In modern times, however, the increasing use of koduntamil has led to the emergence of unofficial 'standard' spoken dialects. In India , the 'standard' koduntamil is based on 'educated non-brahmin speech', rather than on any one dialect Schiffman, , but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai.